183 to 135 BC

This list covers covers the armies of Demetrios (incorporating his sons Agathocles and Pantaleon) 183-171, Antimachos 171-160 (associate king), Apollodotos 171-160 and Menander 171-150, Menander and Zoilos 150-145 (though Menander ruled alone for the majority of this period and Zolios acceded to the dual throne only briefly towards the very end of Menanderís reign) and Lysias and Antialcidas 145-135. <p>Menander's kingdom represented Indo-Greek power at its height; he ruled from the Kabul valley in the west to the Ravi (river in Pakistan) in the east, and from the Swat valley in the north to northern Arachosia in the south. <p>

Era: Biblical   183 to 135 BC CR: H: 4 L: 4   BP: 2 Init:
Core
Number Type   Description Key FV PROT Weapon Cost
2 PH Greek Mercenaries/Settlers K 7[0]0 +1 Pike 10
1 FT Indians K 5[1]1 +1 Various/Bows 8
1 HC Bodyguards K 5[1]0 +2 Lance/Bows 15
1 LHI* Anatolian/Pisidian Thureophoroi   4[1]2 +1 Javelin 7
1 ELE Elephant K 5[3]2 +1 Various 12
Bonus:
4 PH Greek Mercenaries/Settlers K 7[0]0 +1 Pike 10
5 FT** Indians K 5[1]1 +1 Various/Bows 8
2 HC Indians K 3[0]0 +1 Various 8
1 HC Bactrians K 4[1]0 +2 Various/Bows 11
1 LI Indians   4[1]2 +1 Javelin 7
2 SI Indians   3[1]2 +2 Javelins 2
2 SI Cretans   2[1]1 +2 Bows 2
1 CAT*** Kamboja Nobles K 5[2]0 +3 Various/Bows 16
1 HC*** Kamboja K 4[0]0 +1 Various/Bows 12
2 LC*** Kamboja   1[0]0 +1 Bows 6
2 LC Arachosians   2[0]0 +1 Bows 7
2 ELE Elephants K 5[3]2 +1 Various 12
1 M2CH Indians K 4[1]0 +1 Various 10

Terrain:

Core: 1W

Bonus: (Max: 4 ) 3GR; 1SH; 1RG; 1W

Notes:

Core: 90 Bonus: 210

Notes

Greek PH and Indian FT may form in the same Division but may not intersperse.

* may replaced by LI 4(1)2 +1 Javs 7.

** Indian FT may not outnumber total Greek PH.

*** If any heavy Kamboja cavalry is bought then all Kamboja units must be bought.

The CATs are the fully armored riders on fully armored horses depicted in art, on coins, in the written sources, and in archeology. They reflect a different view of the Asian cataphract and both the Kamboja CATs and Kamboja HC mirror the troop types in the WF AFT 'Saka circa 300 B.C. to 250 A.D.' list.

Historical

In a historical game of Zoilos I Vs Menander, Zoilos Iís army add Yuezhi or Scythian Allies to the bonus:

Yuezhi or Scythian Allies

2 LC Yuezhi/Scythians 2[0]0 +1 Various/bow

Regarding the Kamboja one view is that the ancient Kambojas originally belonged to the 'Ghalcha' speaking area (the Iranian Pamirs and Badakshan) in Central Asia. They were also called 'Ashvakas' and had fought Alexander.

Recent studies (Serge Theon) suggest that the Kamboja were, in fact, Sakas: "It seems from some inscriptions that the Kambojas were a royal clan of the Sakas better known under the Greek name of Scyths".

The conquest of Northern India was a joint Greek/Kamboja campaign during the second/first century BC. In their advance from their original home in Central Asia one stream of the Kambojas allied with the Pahlavas and proceeded to Sindhu, Sauvira and Surastra; while the other stream allied with the Yavanas (Greeks) and appear to have moved to Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

The Anushasanaparava of Mahabharata affirms that the country of Mathura, the heartland of India, was under the joint military control of the Yavanas (Greeks) and the Kambojas.

Yavanas: this is most probably a transliteration of the Greek word for Ionians (Homer Iaones, older: Iawones). Keay states that the term is derived from a Persian spelling of 'Ionian' and could also be interpreted to mean any people west of the Indus who were alien to Indian traditions.

Cretans: Stephanus calls Menander's city of Daedala an 'Indo-Cretian' city and Tarn surmises that is was a mercenary settlement, it is moot if any Cretans actually still inhabited it and the name may be a catch all term for the fighting style.

Anatolians: The preponderance of Mysians in the armies and settlements of the period may well also cover Anatolian troops and the settlement at Sealagissa, attributed to Pisidians, could equally have been an Anatolian settlement (Tarn).

Greek Military Settlers: Whilst there are only half a dozen settlements with Greek names the extensive use of city-goddesses on coinage suggests that there may have been many Greek settlements that did not reach 'polis' status and thereby retained native names.

Greek and Indian sources tend to indicate that the Greeks campaigned as far as Pataliputra until they were forced to retreat. This probably took place under the reign of Menander and was likely to have been only a temporary military advance, perhaps in alliance with native Indian states; Keay states that Indian sources (unattributed) identify the likely allies as the kings of Panchala and Mathura (both in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab; in modern western and southwestern Uttar Pradesh). The permanent Indo-Greek dominions extended only from the Kabul Valley to the eastern Punjab or slightly further east. Strabo however was sufficiently impressed/ill-informed to state: "The Greeks became masters of India and more tribes were subdued by them than by Alexander ó by Menander in particular, for some were subdued by him personally and others by Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus the king of the Bactrians." (Apollodorus, quoted in Strabo, 'Geography').

Menander fought the Sunga dynasty (185-73BC), who were the successors to the Mauryan dynasty and for which the AFT Mauryan List could almost certainly be used for the early period (185-151). The founder of the Sunga dynasty, Pusyamitra Sunga, was commander in chief of the Imperial Murayan army and had murdered the last Murayan ruler, Bhadrata, whilst the latter was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces.

Menander also fought the Bactrian king Eucratides between 170-150BC, after Eucratides toppled the Graeco-Bactrian dynasty of Euthydemus (circa 195BC).

Eucradates killed Antimachos and in all probability killed Apollodotus but Menander checked him in his advances circa 160; Menander, according to Tarn, had the support of large parts of the Indian population.

In 160 Eucradates returned to Bactria after cutting a deal with Menander.

The revolt of Eucratides 171 in Bactria and his subsequent invasion of India 165-160 should be represented by the WF Graeco-Bactrian list.

Menander also almost certainly fought a civil war against Zoilos I who reigned as an Indo-Greek King in Gandhara.

Sources: Tarn 'The Greeks in Bactria and India', Narain 'The Indo Greeks', Strabo 'Geography', Keay 'India: A History', Mitchiner 'Indo-Greek and Indo-Skythian Coinage; The Apogee of the Indo-Greeks'.

List Author: O'Cahan

List Author: