Wars of the Roses

This list represents the various factional contingents and armies of the dynastic struggle in England during the mid and later quarters of the C15th. It can also be used to replicate the armies that campaigned in Scotland & Ireland and on one occasion a larger national English force landed on continental foreign soil; even though not a single arrow was loosed in anger, as Louis XI prudently just bribed it to go home!

Era: Age of Chivalry   Wars of the Roses CR: H: 5 L: 2   BP: 2 Init: 5
Number Type   Description Key FV PROT Weapon Cost
2 FT Men-at-Arms* Key 6[1]1 +2 Polearms 9
6 LB   Key 4[1]1 +1 LB 7
3 FT Men-at-Arms* Key 6[1]1 +2 Polearms etc 9
6 LB   Key 4[1]1 +1 Longbow 7
2 Kn(d) Knights** Key 6[2]0 +2 Lance 14
o   or          
1 Kn(d) Knights** Key 6[2]0 +2 Lance 14
1 HC(d) Currours/Prickers** Key 4[0]0 +1 Lance 10
o   Irish          
2 LHI Irish Key 4[1]2 +1 Various / Javelins 7
4 SI Irish   3[1]2 +2 Javelins 2
1 SI Irish   2[1]1 +2 Bows 2
    Northern Levy / Scots / Welsh          
2 FT   Key 5[1]1 +1 Spears 6
1 LI Welsh Key 4[1]2 +1 Javelins 7
1 LC Borderers / Scots Key 3[0]0 +1 Lances 8
1 SI     2[1]1 +2 Bows 2
    Germans / Burgundians          
2 PH   Key 6[0]0 +1 Pikes 8
2 SI     2[1]1 +2 Hand gun 2
1 SI French   2[1]1 +2 X-bows 2


Core: 1 GR

Bonus: (Max: 2 ) 2 GR; 1 WD; 1 RG


Core: 96


* Unlike continental armies of this period English Men-at-Arms rarely fought mounted and if they did it was not in large formations or very effectively, as such they are closer in depiction to infantry than true dismounted cavalry. Fielding the majority of Men-at-Arms contingents as DMA seriously disadvantages them (unrealistically in my mind) for no real benefit to the army and so I have therefore opted to represent them as FT with a relatively higher FV and +2 protection factors. Whilst this means that they don’t provide the DMA benefits to LB units on either flank, I don’t think this is unreasonable for the majority of troops. The more professional household and retinue troops, who’s mtd Archers would have been trained to operate tactically with their Men-at-Arms can be represented by dismounting the Kn(d) units and deploying LB on either flank of these dismounted units. Full plate horse armour was also rare in English armies of this period – hence the +2 protection for the Kn(d) rather than +3

Although English ‘lances’ were specified as containing only Men-at-Arms and Mtd Archers (armed with LB), it is generally recognised that there was a great variety in the quality of the harness worn by some of the ‘lesser’ men-at-arms’ which formed the rear ranks in combined formations. It is my belief that it is these troops, armed in kettle-helms, sallets; with Jacks or Brigandines or breast-plates etc; with some arm and/or leg harness and armed with assorted pole-arms, that has led to the ‘myth’ of the later medieval English “billman”. It is on this premise - plus the records, rolls and indentures of King Edward VI’s French invasion army, that only lists Men-at-Arms (20%) and Archers (75%) with various artisans & gunners etc making up the other 5% (no ‘Billmen’) - that I’ve not included any ‘Billmen’ units in this army list.

**An alternative option, is to field the mounted elements of the ‘lances’ separately. This can be depicted by reducing the numbers of bonus Kn(d) available to one unit, and adding an additional unit of HC(d) [k] (Courrors / Prickers) 4(0)0 +1 Lance @ 10 bonus points.

Obviously, if either element of this single "Lance" is purchased, both must be. Similarly, if any element of the individual separated Lance is fielded dismounted, both must be dismounted.

Whatever option is selected, under no circumstances can a total of more than two KN/HC units be fielded with this army.

Mounted Archers

The Mtd Archer LB elements fought dismounted and are assumed to already be depicted dismounted as the core & bonus LB units. All LB have stakes.


The various named contingents in the bonus list are deliberately listed separately, as if no troops are bought from a specific national contingent these troops are not counted for the extra Light Division rule. Certain restrictions are placed on which of these national/regional contingents can be purchased together, in an attempt to replicate the compositions of various of the dynastical armies. For example: to represent the Lambert Simnel rebel army at Stoke, Irish and German/Burgundian contingents can be fielded together and can be supplemented by Northern Borderers. The Earl of Warwick’s army defending St. Albans would include Burgundian Si with HG, but not German/Burgundian Pikes etc.

Bonus Contingent Restrictions:

If any Irish are bought – all must be purchased. LHI represent mix retinues of armoured Galloglass and unarmoured Bonnachts. SI are Kerns

Irish cannot be used with Welsh or Scots, but can be used with French, German/Burgundians and Northern Levy

Welsh cannot be used with Northern Borderer LC or Scots or Irish. NB: By this period the bulk of Welsh troops would look little different from their English counterparts and the majority of the Welsh contingents would be spear armed FT or LB. The LI are conjectural on my part.

LC [k] (Borderers) can only be bought with Scots or Northern Borders – not Welsh and are armed only with Lance (not javelins)

If German/Burgundian Pike are bought, both units must be purchased and both hand gun units must also be bought. However German/Burgundian hand gunners can be bought separately from German/Burgundian Pike

Hand guns perform like X-bows in all respects

List Author: Aetius