Later Lombard Kingdom 712 to 774 AD

This list describes the armies of the Lombard Kingdom in Italy under the reigns of Astulf and Desiderius which were riddled by defections with many Dukes rebelling and allying with the Pope and the Carolingians.

Although Paul the Deacon was an eyewitness to this era, he stopped his chronicle at the end of King Liutprand's reign to please his Carolingian master. Most of what we know after 744 has to be deduced from the laws of Astulf and Carolingian sources.

Lombard nobles were equipped superbly, both in horses and armour quality, and better then their equivalents in the western kingdoms, but the number of impoverished Arimanns had increased steadily.

Now, Arimanns, Aldii and Romans were equals in war and all had to serve under the King's army. They are generically named "Commoners".

Armours were made in Avar style with minor Byzantine influences while stirrups were common. Skilpors were often unarmoured but provided with lance, helm, shield and bow (assumed to be used by dismounted cavalry).

Era: Triumph of Cavalry   Later Lombard Kingdom 712 to 774 AD CR: H: 4 L: 2   BP: 2 Init: 5
Number Type   Description Key FV PROT Weapon Cost
2 HC(d) Adalings/Rich Romans K 5(1)0 +1 Lances 11
4 HC(d!) Skilpors K 4(1)0 +1 Lances 9
2 SI Commoners   2(1)1 +2 Bow 2
4 HC(d) Adalings/Rich Romans K 5(1)0 +1 Lances 11
8 HC(d!) Skilpors K 4(1)0 +1 Lances 9
5 FT Commoners K 5(1)1 +1 Spears/bows 8
2 LI Commoners   3(1)2 +1 Bows 6
3 SI Commoners   2(1)1 +2 Bows 2


Core: 1 GR

Bonus: (Max: 2 ) 2 GR, 1 W, 1 RG, 2 SH (South Italy)


Core: 94 Bonus: 174

There is no more mention of undisciplined charges made by Dismounted HC and the tactic seems to have been less common so the (!) is absent from the Nobles but is retained for the Skilpors who often had no body armour.

Skilpors can now dismount as FT 5(1)1 Key Unit Prot +1 Various/Bow.

The lance tips are now provided with a stop which seems to suggest the adoption of a fencing style of combat (much like the Carolingian usage).

No Bulgars or Avars are available because there are no reports of either being used in substantial numbers in Northern and Central Italian campaigns although they may still have been present in southern territories.

Skilpors (Arimanns or Aldii Squires whose equipment was, by the law, provided by those Lombards and Romans rich enough to do so), must outnumber Noble Cavalry by 2 to 1 at least.

Great emphasis is given to the bow in the laws of Astulf for foot soldiers, so every Lombard FT, LI, and SI unit is equipped with Bows, including dismounted Skilpors. The archery range of Skilpors is eighteen (18) inches. (See Sec. 6.4.1., pp. 12-13, A2 rules).

All Lombard HC are subject to Obligatory Charge

Ordo Link: This list, along with several other lists dealing with the Lombard Kingdoms in Italy in the early and mid Triumph of Cavalry periods have generatede a great deal of controversty. See the New Lombard Lists link for more details.

Last Edited: 04 February 2006

List Author: Ramaja