Hsi-Hsian 982AD - 1227AD

The Hsi-Hsian were a Tangut successor state that filled the vacuum in the Ordos region of central Asia following the collapse of the Tibetan 'empire'. Originally founded in 982AD it was the declaration by it's founder that he was an 'Emperor' that forced the Sung Chinese to declare him an enemy rebel and launch a series of unsuccessful attacks on the Hsi-Hsian state. Having successfully seen off major Sung offensives on at least 2 occasions and subsequently raided deep into Sung territory with apparent impunity, it was finally Chingis Khan's Mongols that defeated the Hsi-Hsian in open battle. Chingis then taught them a savage and bloody lesson after the Hsi-Hsian were foolish enough to decline to send a tributary contingent to fight alongside the Mongols against the Sung. The Hsi-Hsian state was subsequently obliterated from history in 1227AD - quite literally as Chingis ordered the destruction of all temples, cities, literature and art, as well as the hunting down of all those of Tangut ethnic stock (the 'Han' population was also slaughtered in their hundred of thousands and the remainder driven from their homes) - all as a warning to other tributary states not to even think about rebelling.

This army list can be used in both the ToC & AoC sub-periods.

The Hsi-Hsian followed a more 'Tibetan' military tradition, with the bulk of the Hsi-Hsian nobility fighting as very heavily armoured cavalry. There are Sung references to (and a few votive pottery figures of) Hsi-Hsian cavalry in full armour, most on fully armoured horses, riding with long stirrups, armed with lance and sword (but without bows). However, whilst we know very little about Hsi-Hsian military organisation my view is that the numbers of ethnic 'Tanguts' would have been a relatively small percentageof the overall population (probably a larger % of the army), as the Hsi-Hsian empire included a huge ethnically 'Han' (Chinese) urban and agrarian population. This labour pool and it's industrial resources and technology were used militarily by the Hsi-Hsian in the capacity of: weapons and armour production; a defensive militia probably along Sung lines and also a general levy of peasant farmers when required.

We also know that like their Mongol and Khitan contemporaries, Hsi-Hsian generals made use of 'human shield' tactics, by placing their 'disposable' Chinese peasant subjects (the Levy) in the front line to soak up enemy missiles and absorb the first shock of combat, whilst the Hsi-Hsian waited in the 2nd or 3rd lines to deliver the final victorious charge(s).

Era: Age of Chivalry   Hsi-Hsian 982AD - 1227AD CR: H: 4 L: 3   BP: 2 Init: 5
Number Type   Description Key FV PROT Weapon Cost
1 CAT Nobles key 6[2]0 +3 Lance 15
1 HC Retainers key 5[1]0 +1 Lance 11
4 FT Militia key 4[1]1 +1 Various 4
2 FT Militia key 4[1]1 +1 X-bows etc 6
2 SI Militia   2[1]1 +2 Bows 2
1 CAT Nobles key 6[2]0 +3 Lance 15
4 HC Retainers key 5[1]0 +1 Lance 11
4 LC (see Notes) key 2[0]0 +1 Various/bows 8
8 FT Militia key 4[1]1 +1 Various 4
4 FT Militia key 4[1]1 +1 X-bows etc 6
10 Levy     3[0]0 +0 Various 4
4 SI Militia   2[1]1 +2 Bows  
1 CAT(d!) Nobles key 5[2]0 +3 Lance/bows 16
1 HC(d) Retainers key 4[1]0 +1 Lance/bows 12
1 CAT Ordos key 5[2]0 +3 Lance/bows 16
1 LC Ordos key 3[0]0 +1 Lance/bows 10
1 LC Subjects key 1[0]0 +1 Bows 6


Core: 1 - GR

Bonus: (Max: 3 ) 2:GR; 2:SH


Core: 93 Bonus: 237

It is suggested that for play balance players should field a ratio of at least 2 x HC to every 1 CAT for the Tangut Nobles and their Retainers

Bonus LC are either ethnically Tangut retainer LC or allied/mercenary Turks or rebel Mongols

At least 2 Bonus FT (Militia) 'various' must be bought for each FT (Militia) 'bows'.

Up to half the total FT (Militia) 'bows' in the army may be converted to 'X-bow' at no additional cost. If this option is used, half the total SI (Militia) used must also be converted to X-bows as well.

If any Levy are bought they must be fielded in a single division and can only be brigaded with FT (Militia).

Tibetan and Khitan allies cannot be used in the same army.

If any troops from an allied contingent are purchased all must be.

LC in an allied contingent that is not purchased do not count towards the bonus Light Div requirement.

Tibetan CAT dismount in the same way as Kn(d!) but have a dismounted bow range of 18".

Tibetan HC are either less well armoured retainers or Nepalese.

This army can be used in the Triumph of Cavalry sub-period.

List Author: Aetius