Imperial Tibetan

Era: Triumph of Cavalry   Imperial Tibetan CR: H: 4 L: 3   BP: 2 Init: 6
Number Type   Description Key FV PROT Weapon Cost
1 CAT(d!)* Ch'iang or Khamba Key 6(2)0 +3 Lance/bow 17
1 CAT(d!) Zan-zun Key 5(2)0 +3 Lance/bow 15
1 HC(d!) Tibetans Key 4(1)0 +2 Various/bow 13
1 LC Tibetans Key 2(0)0 +1 Various/bow 8
1 LC Tibetans Key 1(0)0 +1 Bows 6
2 Cat(d!)* Zan-zun Key 5(2)0 +3 Lance/bow 15
2 HC(d!) Tibetan Key 4(1)0 +2 Various/bows 13
3 HC(d) Tibetan Key 4(0)0 +1 Various/bows 12
2 LC Tibetan Key 2(0)0 +1 Various/bows 8
2 LC Tibetan Key 1(0)0 +1 Bows 6
4 FT Militia** Key 4(1)0 +2 Spears/bows 7
2 Levy Levy***   3(0)0 +0 Various 4
2 SI Tibetans   2(1)1 +2 Bows 2
O   NEPALESE          
2 HC Nepalese Key 4(0)0 +1 Various/bows 12
3 LHI Nepalese archers **** Key 2(1)1 +1 Bows 4
3 LI Nepalese archers****   2(1)1 +1 Bows 4
3 SI     2(1)1 +2 Bows 2
O   TURKISH ALLIES          
1 HC Uighurs Key 4(1)0 +2 Lance/bow 13
2 LC Uighurs Key 2(0)0 +1 Various/bows 8
1 LC Sogdians Key 1(0)0 +1 Bows 6
O   OR          
2 HC Turks Key 4(1)0 +2 Lance/bows 13
2 LC Turks Key 2(0)0 +1 Various/bows 8
2 LC Turks Key 1(0)0 +1 Bows 6
1 HC Khamboja horse Key 4(0)0 +1 Various 10
1 HC Bengali Horse Key 3(0)0 +1 Various 8
1 FT Indian FT Key 5(1)1 +1 Various 6
2 FT Indian FT Key 4(1)1 +1 Various/bows 6
1 EL Indian Elephant` Key 5(3)2 +1 Various 12
2 HC Arab, etc. Key 4(0)0 +1 Various 10
4 LC Arab, sogdian, etc. Key 1(0)0 +1 Bows  
O   NAN-CHAO ALLIES*******          
1 HC Native horse Key 4(0)0 +1 Various 10
2 FT Native FT Key 5(1)1 +1 Bow or X-bow 8
2 WB Tribal troops Key 4(1)2 +1 Various 4
2 SI Tribal archers   2(1)1 +2 Bows 2


Core: 1 SH

Bonus: (Max: 3 ) 2 GR, 1 SH, 1 W, 1 RG


Core: 96 Bonus: 409

*The 6(2)0 CAT are troops drawn from the Ch'iang or Khamba who were particularly known for their ferocity in battle. The 5(2)0 CAT could be drawn from any of the various clans - Mukpo, Gade, Drupa, Denma, Shenpa, Tagrong, or Depe. Alternatively, they could be sworn retainers of high ranking Tibetans. All CAT are subject to obligatory charge. The combined number of Bonus CAT purchased may not outnumber the combined number of Bonus HC purchased.

**If any ethnic Tibetan FT are purchased, the total number of FT must be equal to or greater than the total number of CAT.

*** The levy represent city militia which may be Tibetan, Chinese, or from any of the An-hsi garrisons. Although they are reported as being armed with bows, it seems to me that the standard of drill and competency probably rendered these ineffective in army size engagements.

****Nepalese LI and LHI are somewhat speculative. They are based upon Phillipe Allard's drawing of Nepalese on foot with bows as well as on the presence of various ethnic groups in Nepal with a documented history of fighting on foot. The total number of Nepalese LHI and LI purchased may not exceed 3.

***** I have accepted the strand of analysis which believes that references to four-armed, five-armed, and six-armed Bengali armies in this era are anachronistic and that the military use of chariots was abandoned in an earlier era. Bengali may not be used with Turks or with Arab or Ferghana allies, subjects, or captives. If any Bengali are purchased, the Bengali, horse, 1 FT unit, and the elephant must be purchased.

****** If any Arab or Ferghana allies, subjects, or captives are purchased, all must be, they must be in multiples of one HC and two LC units.

******* Nan-chao allies may not be used with Turks or Arab or Ferghana allies, subjects, or captives. Nan-Chao WB are BP 3 with a move of 9 inches and are subject to obligatory charge. Nan-Chao FT may be armed with any combination of bow or X-bow in different units.

Light troops from any allied contingent only count against the requirement that one purchase all light troops in order to acquire an extra light division if any troops from their contingent are purchased.

Although the sources do mention Tibetan cooperation with Chinese troops or with Chinese and Uighur troops, the reported battles are so few in number that I did not include a Chinese allies contingent.

The primary sources for this list were acquired from the Sherpa Guides on Yr Widdfa in 2003. I took two mule loads of rum and buttered tea as a guest gift. Toward the end of the weekend, the Sherpas assured me that this list was God's mouth based upon Himalayan oral traditions of long standing - some dating as far back as the Friday that we broached the rum.

At least, that is what a Sherpa speaking slurred McMaccy meant to this impartial observer.

Although I listed my primary Sherpa source above, I neglected to mention a few other sources. Enjoy the following, however they gave me a headache or three:


Tang China & the Collapse of the Uighur Empire, A Documentary History; Dromp ed., Brill, 2005

From Hecataeus to Al-Huwarizmi: Bactrian, Pahlavi, Sogdian,... (Collection of the Sources for the Pre-Islamic History of Central Asia, Harmatta, ed.; private edition, 1996

History of the Civilisations of Central Asia in 7 volumes, Harmatta, editor; private edition 1999

Imperial Chinese Military History, Marvin C. Whiting, Writers Club Press 2002 Indian Warfare, S.K. Bhakhari, Mushiram Manhorlal 1981

Armies of the 19th Century, Asia, Ian Heath, Foundry Books, 1998

Afghanistan, A Military History, Stephen Tanner, Da Capo Press 2002

A Military History of China, Graff & Higham, Kansas State University 2002

Medieval Chinese Warfare, David Graff, Routledge 2002

Empire of the Steppes, Rene Grousset, Rutgers University Press 2000

Warlords of China, Chris Peers, Chapters 9 & 12, Arms & Armor Press, 1998

Soldiers of the Dragon, Chris Peers, Osprey 2006

A Military History of Medieval India, Gurcharn Singh Sandhu, Vision Books 2003

Tibet, Norbu & Turnbull, Clarion Books 1970

Oriental Armor, H. Russell Robinson, Dover Publications 1967

The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia, Christopher Beckwith, Princeton University Press, 1987

Serindia, Sir Aurel Stein, Internet e-book, 1923

Imperial Chinese Armies, (two volumes on period) Chris Peers, Osprey 1995

Life Along the Silk Road, Susan Whitfield, University of California Press, 1999

Tibet, A Political History, Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa, Yale University 1967

The Silk Road, Susan Whitfield, Serindia Publications 2004

The Army of Tang China, Karl Heinz Ranitzsch, Montvert Publications 1995

Warriors of the Himalayas, Donald LaRocca, Yale University 2006

Art Treasures of Dunhuang, Dunhuang Cultural Institute 2004

Armies & Enemies of Ancient China, WRG,

Under the Flag of Yar Lung, Phillipe Allarde, Slingshot

A Tibetan Wargames Army, Chris Peer, Slingshot

List Author: Subodai Bahadur